The geometry of the horn may be important to the early evolution of the universe

The geometry of the horn may be important to the early evolution of the universe

Scientists in Poland and France believe that when describing the rapid “expansion” of the universe after the Big Bang, perhaps we should consider effects similar to those that caused ants to spread along the surface of the proboscis.

The paper was published in the famous “Physics Review Letters” in September. This result may be important for evaluating the possibility of detecting gravitational waves from the age of cosmic expansion. Representatives of the Department of Physics of the University of Warsaw introduced the research in a press release sent to PAP.

Since the 1930s, we have known that the universe is expanding-galaxies are spreading farther and farther away. Scientists estimate that this expansion began with the Big Bang about 14 billion years ago, creating time and space. No matter where it is, the furthest and oldest region in the universe looks very similar.

The homogeneity of the early universe is a mystery to scientists. If the universe has been expanding in accordance with the known laws of matter, then its remote areas will not have the opportunity to “agree” on their appearance. The answer to this and several related problems is the expansion of the universe. It said that in the early days after the Big Bang, the universe was small enough for different regions to communicate with each other. Then there is a short, unimaginable stage of violent expansion of the universe, called the inflation stage. When it ended-only one second from the Big Bang-the expansion of the universe slowed down, and today we can only see it through precise astronomical measurements.

It is not clear what caused the initial rapid expansion of the universe. Neither the interactions we know nor the things we know can have such an effect-on the contrary, their presence will inhibit the rate of expansion. Therefore, physicists speculate that in addition to the known interaction fields (such as electromagnetic fields or gravitational fields), there should be other fields in nature that have not yet caused expansion. There is no universal model theoretical framework describing inflation, but the common features of many models can be considered, and the predictions of these models are consistent with the observations.

When analyzing such general schemes, Krzysztof Turzyński (WF UW) and Sebastien Renaux-Petel (Paris Astrophysics Institute and Sorbona) pointed out that if the expansion of the field occurs in a space of negative curvature, it may lead to the evaluation of the universe. The correctness of the early expansion theory must be considered when considering the impact.

“First, you need to be aware of what a negative curvature is”-Dr. Turzyński commented: “The two ants start to hover in parallel on the surface of the orange and will inevitably approach each other. This is because the surface of the orange has a positive curvature. He Point out that if these ants are on a surface with negative curvature, such as a hyperboloid or flared goblet surface, their paths will be different. Dr. Turzyński said: “The principle of divergence of space orbits with negative curvature is not only applicable to ants and other small Objects also apply to more abstract entities, such as areas related to inflation.”

When modeling the process of inflation, it is usually assumed that the value of the field that triggers inflation is fixed or does not change too quickly. However, if the space in which we locate the values ​​of these fields is not flat and has negative curvature, during the evolution process, the fields that are initially close to the established value may deviate significantly over time. Dr. Turzyński explained: “This may lead to severe instability during inflation.” “If these fluctuations are large enough, they can even stop inflation, thereby forcing people to make new interpretations of early cosmic observation data.” He specifically pointed out , Which indicates that the primitive gravitational waves generated by inflation may be much more difficult than previously thought.

Sebastien Renaux-Petel and Krzysztof Turzyński’s work entitled “Geometric Instability of Inflation” was published in the famous “Physics Review Letters” at the end of September.

PAP-Science of Poland

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